Science and Nature Volume 3 Number 1 January 2014

Science and Nature


ISSN 2324-7290

Volume 3 Number 1 January 2014 [ PDF ]


Limited Open Access.

Single Issue Price $150USD


Editor-in-chief: Y Julia

Editors: C Abu, M Sophia, AT Tilla

Reviewer: B Joerk, C Cempel, C Jianguo, EC Chirwa, H Guojin, Juliet T Gopinath, L Shengxiong, M Pantic,

Staff: Z Arabella, L Kimberly, W Yuanyuan, L Ly


Impact Factor 0.1 (2013)

Indexed by: Google Scholar, WorldCat (OCLC 810943143).

Sponsored by the Library of Congress


Editorial Department Address

157 East ELM Street, Unit A, Greenwich, CT 06830-6614

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Publisher and Printer: ZolCat Academic House

604 61st St, Brooklyn, New York, NY 11220

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.





Free Access


Ø Reflections on the Arbitrariness of the Language from the Pragmatic and Cognitive Point of View.


LI Jing


The arbitrariness of language is proposed by Saussure. It arouses debate over the issues whether it is arbitrary to all the languages and in the levels of words or sentences. On the basis of the different viewpoints, in the frame of the pragmatic theory of adaptation and the characteristics of cognition, this essay is to point out that language is arbitrary in essence, but when it comes to the different languages in different areas or communities, it is not arbitrary. People incline to adapt their language to the environment and communication, which makes language arbitrary relatively. Besides, the human cognitive characteristics make the human study and use language in cognitive system. Cognition is different when people are exposed to different environment.Accordingly, languages to the same sign are different in terms of signifiers and usages. The relativity of language can be represented in three aspects: words level, syntactic level, and discourse level. They are not arbitrary absolutely but relatively, which is determined by many factors, such as cognitive characteristics, community cultures, and environment etc. The arbitrariness and non-arbitrariness complement each other. This also reflects that language is dynamic.


Ø DHCR7 Mutations Linked to Higher Vitamin D Status Allowed Early Human Migration to Northern Latitudes.


Valerie Kuan, Adrian R Martineau, Chris J Griffiths, Elina Hyppönen, Robert Walton


Background: Vitamin D is essential for a wide range of physiological processes including immune function and calcium homeostasis. Recent investigations have identified candidate genes which are strongly linked to concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Since there is insufficient UVB radiation to induce year-round cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D at latitudes distant from the equator it is likely that these genes were subject to forces of natural selection. We used the fixation index (FST) to measure differences in allele frequencies in 993 individuals from ten populations to identify the presence of evolutionary selection in genes in the vitamin D pathway. We then explored the length of haplotypes in chromosomes to confirm recent positive selection.
Results: We find evidence of positive selection for DHCR7, which governs availability of 7-dehydrocholesterol for conversion to vitamin D3 by the action of sunlight on the skin. We show that extended haplotypes related to vitamin D status are highly prevalent at Northern latitudes (Europe 0.72, Northeast Asia 0.41). The common DHCR7 haplotype underwent a recent selective sweep in Northeast Asia, with relative extended haplotype homozygosity of 5.03 (99th percentile). In contrast, CYP2R1, which 25-hydroxylates vitamin D, is under balancing selection and we found no evidence of recent selection pressure on GC, which is responsible for vitamin D transport.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that genetic variation in DHCR7 is the major adaptation affecting vitamin D metabolism in recent evolutionary history which helped early humans to avoid severe vitamin D deficiency and enabled them to inhabit areas further from the equator


Ø Ethics For Legal Profession in India.


Iqramuddin Malik, Dr.Ashish Singhal, Arun Prakash Singh


Legal ethics may be taken to mean the body of rules and practice which determine the professional conduct of members of bar. The very first purpose and aim of legal ethics is to maintain the dignity and honour of the law profession .In India to maintain the honor of legal profession , the Advocate Act 1961 has been passed and established Bar Councils . Under section 49 (1) (c) of Advocates Act breach of Advocates duties codified in regard to the Professional and other misconduct. So a lawyer should be clear in expressing his views and should understand that it is not enough for him alone to understand that his client is right but to prove it to the judge and to the others concerned with the case. A successful lawyer stands by his point and does not easily agree to statements made against his client. In handling the opponent’s tricky questions to make a lawyer disagree with his own client, a lawyer must be alert and tackle the situation smartly, thus having people think in his favor. A successful lawyer must have quick thinking to handle difficult situations in the court.


Ø Nursing Students’ Perception and Experience of Bullying Behavior in the Faculty of Nursing.


Afaf Abdelaziz Basal, Entisar Abo Elghite Elhossiny Elkazeh


Background: Workplace bullying, a serious issue affecting the nursing profession, is defined as any type of repetitive abuse in which the victim of the bullying behavior suffers verbal abuse, threats, humiliating or intimidating behaviors that interfere with his or her job performance and are meant to place at risk the health and safety of the victim.
Aim: The aim of the study was to assess nursing students' perception and experience of bullying behavior in the faculty of nursing of Tanta University.
Material and methods: Descriptive study design used a questionnaire survey short version of the Negative Acts Questionnaire that adapted according to the earlier studies on bullying against nursing students particularly those conducted by Cooper et al. and Celik and Bayraktar design to assess bullying behaviors by nursing faculty. The study conducted in Faculty of Nursing at Tanta University in Egypt. The sample was approximately 400 undergraduate students. The study was done during the academic year 2012-20130, in April month.
Results: high percent of students 66% never exposure to threats of violence or physical abuse or actual abuse, high percent of students 66.8% sometimes and 19.5% frequently exposure to Being shouted at or being the target of spontaneous anger (or rage) also high percent 43% of students always exposure to behavior of Negative and disparaging remarks about nursing’s profession, and exposure to be shouted at or be the target of spontaneous anger (or rage) by nurse, patients and faculty employee of faculty 48.8 %, 34.3% and 42% respectively.


Ø Intellectual Capital and Knowledge Assets for Value Creation.


H Haghshenas, G Barzegar


In knowledge-based economy, the intellectual capital is used for value creation in the organization, and in today's world, the success of any organization depends on its ability to manage these assets. In the ultra-competitive era, organizations are facing an environment characterized by increasing complexity, mobility and globalization. Therefore, to sustain, organizations are facing new challenges and releasing these challenges requires paying more attention to development and nurturing the inner skills and abilities. This is done through the basics of intellectual capital and knowledge assets which are used by organizations to reach a better performance in the business world. Knowledge and intellectual capital are recognized as a sustainable strategy to achieve and maintain the competitive advantage of organizations. Nowadays, because of the increasing importance of knowledge and intellectual capital in corporates sustainability and the unmatched role they play in maintaining the competitive position, several studies have addressed the intellectual capital and its components from different aspects. This study first specifies the history and the definition and components of intellectual capital, and then features of all components are discussed. In addition, the importance aspects of intellectual capital, the measurement objectives, as well as methods used for classification of intellectual capital measuring are also discussed and analyzed.


Ø The Study of the Relationship between Coping Strategies and Thought Control Strategies with Mental Health of Parents Having Mental Retarded Children Compared with those Having Normal Children.


Hossein Jenaabadi


The present study is aimed to study the relation between coping strategies, thought control strategies with mental health of parents having mental retarded children and those having normal children. Research methodology is correlative and 180 parents of normal children and 180 parents of mental retarded children were selected randomly as the sample. In order to collect data, Lazarous’s questionnaire of coping strategies, Lezodavis’s questionnaire of thought control strategies and general health questionnaire were used. T independent test, Pearson correlation coefficient and regression test have been used for data analysis. Results showed that there is a negative significant relation between thought control strategies and mental health of parents having mental retarded children and there is a direct relation between coping strategies and mental health. Results also showed that there is a significant difference in using coping strategies between parents having mental retarded children and those having normal children. They also showed that parents having mental retarded children are less mentally healthy compared those having normal children.


Ø State Autonomy, Nationality Question and Self-Determination in India–Response of the State.


Susmita Sen Gupta


The paper begins with the contemporary discourse on state autonomy and self-determination of nationalities in India and seeks to examine the response of the Indian state to these issues which have not only generated tensions between the Union and the states, but also between the State and the emerging nationalities with far-reaching implications for the authority and legitimacy of the Indian State.



END© Printied and Published by ZolCat® Academic House | This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. |