Science and Nature Volume 2 Number 4 October 2013

Science and Nature


ISSN 2324-7290

Volume 2 Number 4 October 2013[ PDF ]


Limited Open Access.

Single Issue Price $150USD


Editor-in-chief: Y Julia

Editors: C Abu, M Sophia, AT Tilla

Reviewer: B Joerk, C Cempel, C Jianguo, EC Chirwa, Juliet T Gopinath, L Shengxiong, M Pantic, CeDarr Barron

Staff: Z Arabella, L Kimberly, W Yuanyuan, L Ly


Impact Factor 0.1 (2013)

Indexed by: Google Scholar, WorldCat (OCLC 810943143).

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Free Access


ØBioremediation of a Soil Contaminated with Lubricating Oil using Bacteria Consortium.


Olusegun Onimisi John-Dewole, Ramat Oyenike Sanni-Awal


A pilot study was carried out on soil from toll gate area in Ibadan, Oyo state western Nigeria, contaminated with hydrocarbon (lubricating oil) by artificial simulation to determine the attendant effect associated with the soil physicochemical properties and microbiological composition. Biodegradation of the contaminant using soil microbes and the kinetics of such process was also investigated. Soil parameters such as pH, conductivity, total organic hydrogen, total nitrogen and phosphorus and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) were characterized using standard analytical methods. Trend in growth phase of soil heterotrophic and hydrocarbon utilizing microbes were investigated. Hydrocarbon contamination was seen to affect certain soil properties as a reduction in pH, conductivity, total phosphorus and heterotrophic microbial population was observed. The rate of microbial degradation was found to be dependent on pH and nutrient source. Effective degradation and increased microbial growth occurred between pH 5.3 and 7.2 but recorded reduced microbial growth and rate at much higher pH, thereby defining a suitable pH condition for the process.


ØHistological and Ultrastructural Studies On the Epididymis of Pigeon (Columba Livia).


Abdel Aleem A El- Saba, Mohamed I Abdrabou


The pigion's epididymis consisted of an extra testicular part of the rete testis, the proximal & distal efferent ductules, the connecting ductules & the epididymal duct. The extra testicular part of rete testis lined by squamous to cuboidal epithelium. The wall of the proximal efferent ductules was thrown into many longitudinalfolds. Their epithelium formed of two main cell types, ciliated and non ciliated cells in addition to few basal cells. The ciliated cells appeared columnar with Long tuft of cilia projected from their luminal surfaces. Many cells showed large and small multi vesicular bodies, dense bodies associated with yellow Lipofuchsin pigment. The non ciliated cells were denser than the ciliated ones. They showed intracytoplasmic vacuoles, dens globules. Their apical cytoplasm might protrude into the ductular lumen to form bleb like projections with PAS +ve. The distal efferent ductule appeared smaller in diameter than the proximal ones. The epididymal duct had wide lumen. The lining cells consisted of non-ciliated columnar cells and basal cells. The columnar cells showed vacuolated cytoplasm.


ØMicrobes in Pediatric Infant Formula.


Adeel Arsalan, Zubair Anwar, Iqbal Ahmad, Arif Saba, Syed Baqar Shayum Naqvi


Pediatric infant formula (PIF) is of immense importance for the cognitive and psychomotor development of infants and young childrens. Although mother-fed is one of the precious gifts for infants from nature. Hence, world renowned regulatory bodies like World Health Organization (WHO), Health Canada, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of USA, Medicine and Health care Product Regulatory agency (MHRA) of UK strongly recommends breast-feed due to the possibilities of microbial contamination in infant formula.

Although PIF is frequently used a number of microbes like Enterobacter sakazakii, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Citrobacter freundii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae are found in PIF. Among these Enterobacter sakazakii, Salmonella and Clostridium species, Citrobacter freundii, and Bacillus cereus are highly virulent and may cause several lifethreating illnesses to neonates and infants like necrotizing enterocolitis, systemic infections, severe diarrheas, and allergies. It is difficult to prepared sterile powdered infant formula. Therefore, the quality of PIF should meet very high quality standard. Moreover, some probiotics like Bifidobacterium and Lactobaccili species are usually added for the beneficiary effect. These probiotics aid in the digestion, stimulate the immune system, and inhibit the growth of pathogens, effective against bacterial induced gastroenteritis, and even recovery from acute diarrhea in children mainly associated by Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Shigella species.


ØDetermine the Content of Aquatic Glyphosate Efficiently and Quickly by Using the Method of MRM of Liquid Chromatogram-Polyionic Reaction.


XU Pian, TAO Daiqin


To establish HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography)-trebling quadrupole rod tandem mass spectrometry to determine the content of domestic drinking water efficiently and quickly. Use water sample and 9-fluoreny methyl trichloromethane acetone solution to have derivatization reaction .Through membrane filtration of 0.2 µm and by using the method of MRM to determine glyphosate, the method of determining the content of domestic drinking water efficiently and quickly. It has been proved that this method can have the lowest minimum mass concentration of glyphosate with the result of 0.015 mg/L(sample size 2 µl). Within the linearity range(0~0.8 mg/L), the coefficient of association is greater than 0.999 and the average recovery rate is within 93.7-102.4%. The ration is accurate, highly sensitive and the concentration range is wide. It is truly a good method to determine the content of aquatic glyphosate. The RSD is 0.59%~4.04%.


ØInterlaboratory Evaluation of in Vitro Cytotoxicity and Inflammatory Responses to Engineered Nanomaterials: The NIEHS Nano GO Consortium.


Tian Xia, Raymond F Hamilton Jr, James C Bonner, Edward D Crandall, Alison Elder, Farnoosh Fazlollahi, Teri A Girtsman, Kwang Kim, Somenath Mitra, Susana A Ntim, Galya Orr, Mani Tagmount, Alexia J Taylor, Donatello Telesca, Ana Tolic, Christopher D Vulpe, Andrea J Walker, Xiang Wang, Frank A Witzmann, Nianqiang Wu, Yumei Xie, Jeffery I Zink, Andre Nel, Andrij Holian.


Background: Differences in interlaboratory research protocols contribute to the conflicting data in the literature regarding engineered nanomaterial (ENM) bioactivity. Objectives: Grantees of a National Institute of Health Sciences (NIEHS)-funded consortium program performed two phases of in vitro testing with selected ENMs in an effort to identify and minimize sources of variability.

Methods: Consortium program participants (CPPs) conducted ENM bioactivity evaluations on zinc oxide (ZnO), three forms of titanium dioxide (TiO2), and three forms of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). In addition, CPPs performed bioassays using three mammalian cell lines (BEAS-2B, RLE-6TN, and THP-1) selected in order to cover two different species (rat and human), two different lung epithelial cells (alveolar type II and bronchial epithelial cells), and two different cell types (epithelial cells and macrophages). CPPs also measured cytotoxicity in all cell types while measuring inflammasome activation [interleukin-1β (IL-1β) release] using only THP-1 cells.

Results: The overall in vitro toxicity profiles of ENM were as follows: ZnO was cytotoxic to all cell types at 50 μ g/mL, but did not induce IL-1β. TiO2 was not cytotoxic except for the nanobelt form, which was cytotoxic and induced significant IL-1β production in THP-1 cells. MWCNTs did not produce cytotoxicity, but stimulated lower levels of IL-1β production in THP-1 cells, with the original MWCNT producing the most IL-1β.

Conclusions: The results provide justification for the inclusion of mechanism-linked bioactivity assays along with traditional cytotoxicity assays for in vitro screening. In addition, the results suggest that conducting studies with multiple relevant cell types to avoid false-negative outcomes is critical for accurate evaluation of ENM bioactivity.


ØThe Research of Soft Environmental Construction of Law Laboratories in Colleges and Universities.




The professional laboratory culture of institutions of higher learning is of great significance to the cultivation of the professional skills of the students and the construction of the entire educational environment. Unlike science and engineering laboratories which mainly embody the characteristics of science and technology, the characteristics of arts laboratories lie in humanity. The law laboratory which belongs to the arts laboratories has its own unique laboratory culture. Soft environmental construction of law laboratories which enbody the laboratory culture is of greater importance compared with the hardware facilities construction. This article analyzes and discusses the significance, construction contents and methods of the soft environmental construction of law laboratories.


ØExtraction, Analysis and Study of Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic of Pomegranate (Punica Granatum L.) Seed Oil from Four Different Regions of Iran (Yazd, Saveh, Kashan and Varamin).


Abdolhossein Rustaiyan, Keivandokht Samiee, Somayeh Elahi Kurabaslu, Massoud Taghizadeh


In this study varieties of pomegranates were collected from four different regions of Iran (Yazd, Saveh, Kashan and Varamin) and the oils were extracted in Soxhlet by using Hexane as a solvent. The fatty acids composition of the seed oil of pomegranate varieties (Punica granatum L.) was determined by GC-MS. The results showed 6.8-9.0 % saturated fatty acid, 8.1-34.5% monounsaturated, 0-8.7% diunsaturated and 50.9-78.2% poly unsaturated fatty acids. Antimicrobial properties were studied the disc diffusion method on four microbial samples of Saccharomyces cerevisae (ATCC 2365), Basilus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Esherichiacoli (ATCC 25922). None of the samples showed antimicrobial effects. The samples were also subjected to screening for their possible antioxidant activity by using DPPH as a stable free radical, Ravand Kashan variety showed the most antioxidant activity of about 90% while the Shirin Saveh variety had the least activity of 50% compared with trolox as a control sample with 94% antioxidant activity. Four oil samples from different regions of Iran were studied for their total phenolic compounds according to Folin-Ciocalteau method. The Ravand Kashan variety had the highest amount of approximately 37.97 μg/mg and the Shirin Saveh variety had the least amount, 22.61 μg/mg.


ØQuantum Key Distribution Over Optical Access Networks.


Slavisa Aleksic, Dominic Winkler, Gerald Franzl, Andreas Poppe, Bernhard Schrenk, Florian Hipp


It is well known that optical access networks are able to provide high data rates over long distances and to a reasonable number of users. Security and privacy are always a challenge for public accessible network infrastructures. Especially in time division multiplexing passive optical networks (TDM-PONs), in which the downstream signal is broadcasted to all users connected via the same wavelength channel in a shared fiber link, privacy can be a critical concern. Although encryption at the application layer can provide a high level of security, this can be achieved only if the encryption key distribution is perfectly save. On the other hand, encryption on the physical layer such as quantum cryptography or, more precisely, quantum key distribution (QKD) is a very promising approach to achieve secure communication. However, there remain several issues that have to be solved before the quantum cryptography reaches the maturity level needed for a cost effective implementation in practical networks.

In this paper, we address quantum key distribution (QKD) over passive optical access networks, which is an enabling technology required to cost efficiently deploy practical quantum encrypted data communication in the access area. We study different methods to integrate QKD systems in conventional optical access networks and quantitatively evaluate their suitability for a potential implementation.



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